Showing posts with label Citibank. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Citibank. Show all posts

Wednesday, 17 September 2014

Where have all the global retail banks gone?

Where have all the global retail banks gone? The banks that had the ambition to become truly global retail banks. What happened to HSBC and ‘The World’s Local Bank’? (see HSBC goes back to its roots ) It isn’t only HSBC that has lost the appetite to be a global retail bank but also Citibank, Standard Chartered, Barclays and RBS amongst others have made it clear that they no longer have that aspiration. Each of them has and continues to be in the process of selling off or closing down selected retail banking operations across the globe.

So what made some of the largest banks in the world consider becoming a global retail bank?

Myth 1: Banking is the same all over the world

For a long time the myth has been actively peddled by consultants and banking applications salespeople that retail banking is the same the world over. After all a loan is a loan, a mortgage is a mortgage and a savings account is a savings account wherever they are in the world – aren’t they?

On the surface this appears to be true. The definition of a residential mortgage is fundamentally the same wherever you are in the world. However the process to take out that loan, the regulations that must be complied with and how the bank treats the mortgage asset is unique to each country. For example in the UK most loans are not securitised whereas in the US Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac play a role in almost every mortgage. The role that notaries play in the sales process in Spain is quite different from that which solicitors perform in the UK. Santander found this out to their cost when they replaced Abbey National’s banking platforms with Partenon, the Santander European retail banking platform. Significant parts of the banking platform had to customised to meet the different way that business is conducted in the UK compared to Spain. The ease with which Partenon could be implemented was a core part of the business case for the acquisition of Abbey by Santander. It turned out to be a lot more expensive and took a lot longer than envisaged.

 Likewise Bradford & Bingley and Barclays both found out separately that implementing a US mortgage application in the UK market was nigh on impossible with both writing off the complete cost of the implementation after many years and millions of pounds being spent trying to modify the applications to meet the local requirements. They had wanted to believe what the mortgage platform sales person had told them.

Both Citibank and HSBC decided to address the problem a different way by building their own custom global retail banking platforms. Neither of them succeeded in delivering a single core banking platform that has been rolled out to all their retail operations but hundreds of millions of pounds (if not billions) were spent trying to achieve that. Neither programme was completed.

As has previously been mentioned, Santander has come the closest to achieving this is. The Santander Partenon platform has been implemented for their European and parts of their US operations. For their South American operations Santander recognised that bending and force fitting Partenon was not going to be a viable option. Instead they needed to develop a different platform Altair but even this needs significant customisation for each new implementation.

Even when looking to implement in only one different country and with more modern architectures than HSBC, Citi or Santander were working with, one of the world’s largest platform vendors, SAP, has found it far more difficult and expensive to implement a core banking system than was envisaged as has been illustrated by the troubled programmes at Commonwealth Bank (Australia), Postbank (Germany) and Nationwide Building Society (UK). Commonwealth Bank has achieved the implementation and is now reaping the benefits (see CBA proves case for core banking replacement)  

Myth 2: Retail Banking is highly profitable

Politicians and consumer lobbyists across the world continue to complain that banks make excessive profits. When the total profit that the large banks make is looked at the numbers can seem very large but when you look at the margin being made it presents a very different picture. Retail banking is only really profitable when operated at scale. It is for a very good reason that in most countries the retail banking market is dominated by a small number of large banks. The costs of capital, of meeting global and local regulations, setting up branch and back office infrastructures, of putting in place the IT systems, of either creating or joining the payments infrastructure are huge. The risks and returns for large banks entering a new market and building a customer base from scratch are very unattractive. This and the myth below are two reasons why the large global banks have been selling or closing their operations in many countries – they simply didn’t have the scale and couldn’t see a way to get to the scale to make the business attractive.

Myth 3: Global brands matter to retail customers

The global banks that have entered local markets have been under the misapprehension that the power of their global brand would be sufficient to make local customers change their primary banking relationship to them. HSBC is the bank that spent the most money in trying to make this true with their ‘The World’s local bank’ campaign. Despite all that money being spent they discovered that it wasn’t true and have and are withdrawing from countries where they could not build enough scale. Citi discovered this to their cost in countries such as Spain, Germany, Poland and Turkey where they could not get local customers to move to them. (see Citi in Europe). The reality is that the majority of customers want to bank with local banks with all the perceived benefits of local and national regulation and the knowledge that the bank is not going to disappear if Head Office decides that the operation in that country is not making enough money.

What of the future of global retail banking?

So does all this mean the end of global retail banks? In terms of a Barclays UK customer walking into an Absa branch in Capetown and transacting as if they were a local customer or a Santander UK customer walking into a branch in Sao Paulo then that is not something that the banks are willing to invest in, nor do they see sufficient demand to justify it. In terms of banks having significant retail presences in other geographies then there won’t be too many banks that will do that – HSBC and Santander being the exceptions.

Santander stands out as the leader in global retail banking particularly given that it is a  Spanish bank where the profits from its retail bank in the UK exceed those of its local market. Despite the death of Emilio Botin it doesn’t appear that that strategy is going to change with Ana Botin fully supporting the direction he set with ambition to expand further globally particularly in the US and Poland.

Friday, 1 February 2013

How did Citibank get European retail banking so wrong

According to Reuters Citibank is looking to pull out of consumer banking in a number of countries beyond Pakistan, Paraguay, Romania, Turkey and Uruguay, which they announced in December 2012. The withdrawal is all part of new CEO, Michael Corbat's strategy to get Citibank back into shape.

The reasoning given behind the withdrawals is that these are countries where Citibank has not managed to build sufficent market share to be a significant player or to make sufficient profits from. This is not unlike the argument that 'the world's favourite bank', HSBC has been making for some time (see http://www.itsafinancialworld.net/2011/05/hsbc-goes-back-to-its-roots.html ). However where HSBC has from its beginning been a bank that supports world trade and has successfully leveraged its global brand this is not what Citibank has done with its consumer banking strategy, particularly in Europe, but also across the globe.

When Citibank has entered a European country it has not been part of a joined up global or European strategy, it has been on a country by country basis. It has usually led with either its Citifinance, the finance house brand, or a mix of Citifinance and its mass affluent brands. 

One of the challenges with entering with a finance house brand is that in many markets it tends to attract customers that cannot get a loan from their main bank or they have to compete on price. This has proved to be the case in a number of the countries that Citibank is looking to address.

Citibank with its Citiblue and CitiGold segmentation was aiming to attracted the premier banking segments, but this was in many ways conflicted by leading with the unsecured loan product.

Citibank has tended to enter these markets with a standard offering not tailored to the local market and not recognising the nuances of these markets. In Germany, for instance, the tendancy of customers to have their current account and savings with a local or regional savings bank, meant that Citibank has, to a large extent, ended up with a loans business that is made up of customers that the local German banks would not lend to, resulting in a low quality book. Citibank as long as it wanted to leverage the power of the global brand was never going to be seen as a domestic bank, so in Germany the strategy it adopted was to compete on price and/or availability of lending.

In Spain, one of the most over-banked countries, where it feels like every other high street outlet is a bank branch (or at least until the financial crisis) and where there has been a lot of innovation in branch formats, Citibank opened very standard, unappealing branches. Going to a bank in Spain is often a social event, but the standard design that Citibank chose to deploy meant that from the street visibility into the branch was minimal and far less welcoming than their local rivals. Without branch footfall in Spain it is difficult to compete in consumer banking.

Citibank failed to recognise in Europe that  one of its  brand's greatest strength is its global nature and its payments infrastructure. If Citibank had recognised the entrepreneurial flair of European migrants and the share of their wallets that flows  from and to the home countries, then their market share of consumer and SME banking could have been far higher.  This was an offering many of the local domestic banks which tend to be inter-country regional in their focus could not compete with.

Focusing on the migrant and ex-pat markets could have produced a far more successful result. However in Germany in particular the focus was firmly on the local German and certainly not on the migrant market.

For instance Turkey, one of the countries that Citibank consumer banking is pulling out of, has one of the most vibrant and innovative banking sectors with a young, educated, increasingly affluent population. It also has a large number of  its citizens living in Germany and the UK, many of which are sending money back to Turkey on a regular business. Many of the Turkish living in their adopted countries are successful businessmen ideal targets for the wealth offerings that Citibank is a very strong in. Targeting those Turkish in Germany could have been a very successful model for Citibank, particularly with the receiving bank being Citi.

Equally there are a lot of Pakistanis living and working in the UK and the Middle East with very high levels of remittances going back to Pakistan. There a lot of wealthy Pakistani entrepreneurs investing in a range of industries including real estate and leisure,. Many Pakistanis are well educated and mobile. Again this is a country that Citibank is withdrawing from.

This missed opprtunity is not limited to Europe. In Latin America many Spanish people live and work and with the increasing financial crisis in Spain, whereas it used to be that Latin Americans working in Spain  were sending money back to their home countries the flow of remittances is now going the opposite way from ex-pats back to Spain.

The failure of Citibank to gain market share in consumer banking across the globe is not because these markets are unattractive or too competitive but  it is the failure of Citibank to recognise the value of its global brand, the strengths of its payments infrastructure and its failure to think globally and execute locally. It is an opportunity that others will step into reducing Citibank to a minor player in consumer banking.

Friday, 4 May 2012

Why Lloyds shouldn't dismiss selling Scottish Widows



Following the rumour that private equity vehicle Tungsten, formed by Duke Street founder Edmund Turrell and his brother, was preparing a multi-billion bid for Scottish Widows, Antonio Horta-Osorio, CEO of Lloyds Banking Group, stated that the Group was 'absolutely' not selling Scottish Widows. Should Horta-Osorio have adopted the Sean Connery line regarding his return as Bond and said 'never say never' - was he over hasty in his response? Is there no price at which Lloyds should sell Scottish Widows? There are many reasons why the disposal of Scottish Widows should not be dismissed out of hand.

Scottish Widows was bought in 2000 for £7bn by the then Lloyds TSB CEO, Peter Ellwood, ably assisted by his deputy Mike Fairey. At the time many thought that Lloyds TSB had overpaid for  Widows, but it was a major plank in Peter Ellwood's strategy to build a major bancassurer. He was not alone at that time having a vision of creating a money supermarket, a one-stop shop for retail financial services from a bank. This vision was shared across the globe with the likes of Citibank acquiring Travellers and ING and AXA all pursuing this vision. However that was with the optimism of the new millennium and now in 2012 following the financial crisis most, if not all of those who adopted this strategy have abandoned it.

Certainly one reason that bancassurance has proved not to be successful is the fundamental difference in culture between a retail bank and a life assurance company. Retail banking is all about transactions, taking a short term view - daily interest charges, leveraging the differences between the deposit and the lending rates, taking and managing risk, whereas life assurance is much more focused on the long term with low volumes of transactions and risk aversity. Bringing the cultures of these two types of business together is like trying to mix oil and water, as has been shown in the market.

Apart from the cultural differences there are other reasons why Lloyds Banking Group could be better off without Scottish Widows. With the impending imposition of  Solvency II regulation, insurers are going to be required to hold higher levels of capital than they currently do, which will make doing the business of life assurance more expensive. Layer on top of that, for the likes of Lloyds Banking Group, Basel III and the recommendations of the Independent Commission on Banking (ICB) and the capital requirements are even higher. Long gone is the efficiency of being able to apply the same capital to both the insurance company and the bank. With the cost of acquiring capital being a lot higher than it was at the beginning of the century this further increases the cost of simply doing business.

It is surprising that Antonio Horta-Osorio is defending the bancassurance model, since the bank he came from, Banco Santander, one of the banks that has survived the financial crisis better than most, despite being headquartered in Spain, has always vehemently argued against both the bancassurance model and investment banking and could justifiably say that they have been proved correct. It was most commentators' expectations that given his experience and training that Antonio Horta-Osorio would see the disposal of Scottish Widows as one of his highest priorities.

Another reason to be shot of Scottish Widows is the introduction of the rules coming out of the Retail Distribution Review (RDR). RDR fundamentally challenges the bancassurance model, makes the cost of selling life assurance and investment products much higher. It has seen Barclays and HSBC amongst others, withdraw from selling mass market assurance products and subsequently laying off thousands od staff in the process. Lloyds Banking Group  is almost a lone voice on the high street still offering assurance and investment advice to the mass market. This may be a smart decision on the part the Group or could it be that the others are all correct?

Certainly if there is someone prepared to make a good offer for Scottish Widows then it could be in shareholders' (and that means UK tax-payers and the UK Government) best interests that LBG makes the deal as this would be a rapid way of paying down debt and should see a significant increase in share price.

The cost and difficulty of separating Scottish Widows from the rest of Lloyds Banking Group is far lower and far simpler than that of separating the 632 Verde branches that LBG is negotiating with Co-Operative Financial Services. The reason for this is that, despite Lloyds TSB acquiring Scottish Widows in 2000, the level of integration between Scottish Widows and the rest of Lloyds Banking Group is relatively low. It has been managed largely at arms length and therefore carving out would not be that difficult, so this is a deal that could be executed relatively quickly and the benefits achieved faster than other disposals.

Certainly if Scottish Widows was sold that would give Antonio Horta-Osorio and his team the chance to focus on the core issue of restoring what was a great and much-admired bank not just back to where it was before it was forced to buy HBoS, but to be even better and even more a bank for customers of the 21st century.

Wednesday, 23 February 2011

Spanish-Swiss Strategic move in South America

In what sounds like a very smart move Zurich has taken a 51% stake in Santander's South American insurance business. Latin America is one of the few regions that seems to have come out largely unimpacted from the financial meltdown and with the fastest growing number of high net worth individuals this region continues to grow at a pace. The investment by Zurich will give them access to Santander's 5600+ branches and 36 million customers in Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. Santander has been established in South America for over 25 years and has a dominant position in many of the markets, with HSBC and, to a much lesser extent, Citibank, the main global rivals. In return Santander frees up $1.2bn of much needed capital given the problems at home in Spain and the increased levels of capital required by regulation. This deal seems to make a lot of sense for both parties.